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Is Coke gay friendly or not?
Posted by: Mike Wilke
Coca-Cola earned a perfect 100 from the Human Rights Campaign in the US and just debuted a commercial in the UK featuring a gay wedding. But it cut the wedding scene for the commercial in Ireland and has chosen to sponsor the winter Olympics in Russia, which is coming under heavy fire for its new anti-gay law and indifference to homophobic violence.



James Franco Dropped By Advertising Campaigns Over His Gay Themed Films

Posted by: Adam Stazer
http://www.back2stonewall.com/2013/03/james-franco-dropped-advertising-campaigns-gay-themed-films.html

In a red carpet interview last week at SXSW, James Franco suggested that he has been dropped from three advertising campaigns due to his involvement in two gay-oriented films he put out at Sundance, and not due to his image as the companies reported. He produced Kink and co-directed and starred in a forthcoming Travis Matthews film, Interior.Leather Bar. Franco suggested that this exemplifies the homophobia that still exists in American media. As many advertisers have already begun to notice, gays and lesbians will only continue to become an increasingly visible part of American society. While the exact reason for Franco having been dropped from these campaigns is unclear at this time, the depiction of raw gay sexuality as portrayed in these films was no doubt part of the conversation. Other explicit films depicting heterosexual sex rarely if ever raise an eyebrow among the public, and neither should these.



Gay-Themed Ads Are Becoming More Mainstream

Posted by: Danielle
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/06/gay-themed-ads-mainstream-_n_2821745.html?ncid=edlinkusaolp00000003

Above is an article posted by the Huffington Post regarding the new Kindle ad that features a gay couple. I've been delighted to see this Kindle commercial running fairly often. What Kindle did really well in this ad was incorporate a gay couple into a story line that didn't center around their orientation. They essentially normalized this couple and more importantly they weren't necessarily the punchline. This is the best type of integration for LGBT couples in advertisements because it doesn't play off their perceived differences as a joke. Eventually more same-sex couples will seamlessly be incorporated into advertising, and it’s novelty will wear off with every ad (which the article refers to a bit as ‘going mainstream’), but that’s simply the process of normalization which I think should be the ultimate goal.



Commercial Closet Resources

Scholarly Journals

Nontarget Markets and Viewer Distinctiveness: The Impact of Target Marketing on Advertising Attitudes

Sonya A. Grier, Anne M. Brumbaugh and Jennifer L. Aaker; Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9 (3), 127-140; 2000

This research examines the effect of target marketing on members of the advertiser's intended audience as well as members not in the target market: the nontarget market. The results of 3 experiments show that unfavorable nontarget market effects are stronger for members of nondistinctive groups (e.g., Caucasian individuals, heterosexual individuals) and favorable target market effects are stronger for memebers of distinctive groups (e.g., African American individuals, homosexual individuals). The results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that the psychological processes by which target and nontarget market effects occur differ by viewer group: Felt similiarity with sources in an advertisement drives target market effects for nondistinctive viewers. Finally, Experiment 3 shows that these consumer feelings of similarity or targetedness are associated with underlying processes of identification and internalization. Theoretical implications regarding the impact of distinctiveness theory in consumer persuasion effects and potential social effects of target marketing are discussed.

Out in the market: A history of the gay market segment in the United States

Blaine J Branchik. Journal of Macromarketing. Boulder: Jun 2002. Vol. 22, Iss. 1; p. 86 (12 pages)

In recent years, the American gay market segment has been recognized by publications and businesses as large and lucrative. Whether purposefully of inadvertently, US businesses have been marketing to gay consumers for well over 100 years. This market segment has developed as a result of a serious of historical and societal events, paralleling the development of the gay community and involving activities on the part of both buyers and sellers. This article traces the evolution of the gay market segment from the late nineteenth century to the beginning of the twenty-first century through three historical phases: 1. the underground phase, pre-1941, 2. the community-building phase, 1941-1970, and 3. the main-stream phase, 1970 to the present.

Out of the closet and out on the street!: Gay men and their brand relationships

Steven M Kates. Psychology & Marketing. Hoboken:Jun 2000. Vol. 17, Iss. 6, p. 493

Findings of a study are reported that explored the lived experience and consumer behaviors of 44 gay men. The specific focus is on the brand relationships considered community constructing. Participant observation and long interviews were both used extensively to attain this objective. Various literatures have not fully explored various forms of consumer behavior and their important interrelationships with community and resistance to the sexual status quo.

Pansies to Parents: Gay Male Images in American Print Advertising

Blaine J Branchik. Journal of Macromarketing. Boulder:Mar 2007. Vol. 27, Iss. 1, p. 38-50

Common and diverse depictions of gay men in American print advertising are recent phenomena, dating from the mid-1990s. However, gay male images have appeared in print advertisements since early in the last century. Using a framework categorizing minority depictions in media over time and adapted for this study, a chronological series of twenty-five print advertisements are analyzed dating from 1917 through 2004. In these ads, gay male images complying with one or more of the ten criteria established for this study are found to change over time. This evolution of imagery is categorized into four stages: (1) targeted recognition, (2) ridicule/scorn, (3) cutting edge, and ultimately, (4) respect. The evolution reflects society’s changing view of homosexuality and the media’s changing role in portraying gay men. It further can be analyzed within the context of the history of the United States’ gay community.

Personal advertisements of male-to-female transsexuals, homosexual men, and heterosexuals

Child, Meredith, Low, Kathryn Graff, McCormick, Cheryl McDonell, Cocciarella, Andrew. Sex Roles. New York:Mar 1996. Vol. 34, Iss. 5-6, p. 447 (9 pp.)

A content analysis of personal advertisements of male-to-female transsexuals (TM), homosexual and heterosexual men and heterosexual women is presented. TM were more likely to be seeking friendship than sexual partners.

PREFACE

Jennifer Carter. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy. Cambridge:Summer 2006. Vol. 29, Iss. 3, p. V,VI (2 pp.)

Zemer contends that Locke's theory of knowledge, in contrast to the Romantic notion of author as creator, supports viewing intellectual property as a collective product, suggesting that less robust copyright protections should apply

Queer Ads: Gay Male Imagery in American Advertising

Branchik, Blaine J.,Consumption, Markets and Culture, Volume 10, Number 2, June 2007, pp. 147-158(12)

he multimedia presentation Queer Ads: Gay Male Imagery in American Advertising chronicles the history of gay male images in American print and video advertising. It does this within the context of the history of the gay rights movement and with a focus on advertisements for a variety of product and service categories. It concludes that, although very rare, gay images appeared in subtle but non-judgmental portrayals early in the twentieth century. Starting at the end of the 1920s, imagery, equally rare, tended to depict gay men pejoratively as objects of ridicule or scorn. This approach changed in the 1970s when more positive and edgy images began appearing. Today, a broad range of gay male images - both positive and negative - appear in print and video advertisements. This document provides information intended to supplement the presentation. It includes (1) dimensions of what comprises a gay male image; (2) the method used to locate the images; (3) the narration script of the presentation annotated with references; (4) links to images for which copyright reprint permission was denied; and (5) a list of references.

Queer eye for a gay guy: Using market-specific symbols in advertising to attract gay consumers without alienating the mainstream

Gillian K. Oakenfull, Timothy B. Greenlee. Psychology & Marketing. Hoboken:May 2005. Vol. 22, Iss. 5, p. 421-439 (19 pp.)

Although advertisers have flooded gay and lesbian print media in recent years, it is estimated that more than half of the gay and lesbian population does not read gay media. Hence, this study addresses the question: How may marketers target gays and lesbians in mainstream media without alienating heterosexual consumers? As such, this study assesses responses of both heterosexual and homosexual consumers to advertising content that includes mainstream imagery, implicit gay and lesbian imagery, and explicit gay or lesbian imagery to provide advertisers with a better understanding of how to effectively crossover into mainstream media with gay-targeted advertisements.

Queering whiteness: The peculiar case of the women's national basketball association

Mary G McDonald. Sociological Perspectives. Greenwich:Winter 2002. Vol. 45, Iss. 4, p. 379-396

This article offers an investigation of the Women's National Basketball Association's marketing discourses and provides historical and contemporary contexts to illuminate the complex articulations of race and sexuality imagined via representations of the league and its players. Proposing to "queer whiteness" by deploying particular inflections of the word , this article makes visible the ways in which discourses related to heterosexuality and whiteness assist marketers in advertising the league as a "mainstream" and therefore salable event. Marketers thus participate in and advance a representational politics that elevates the importance of maternity and morality as emblematic of the WNBA's idealized image of the "good girl," especially the "good white girl." This constant emphasis on the players' moral attributes and family values helps to distance the league from projections of alleged deviance imagined to be embodied by "fatal women"--that is, bodies marked as black and lesbian--the alleged obverse of the "good white girl."

Revisiting the income penalty for behaviorally gay men: Evidence from NHANES III

Christopher S. Carpenter, Labour Economics, 2007, vol. 14, issue 1, pages 25-34

Four studies published in the last ten years use the General Social Surveys (GSS) to show that behaviorally gay/bisexual men earn 15–30 percent less than other men. In this paper I use independent data on sexual behavior from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES III) and find that same-sex behaving men experience a statistically and economically significant income penalty on the order of 23–30 percent. Moreover, the strongest evidence for an income penalty is found for those men most likely to have a gay sexual orientation based on their lifetime sexual behavior. That the penalty for same-sex behaving men is robust across data sources suggests the need for more research into its causes and consequences.

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